Gender and terrorism
This chapter analyzes the connections between gender and terrorism. It notes that many observers and policymakers focus on only one aspect of the issue: female terrorists. Other connections between gender and terrorism should also be given close consideration: carefully crafted and highly gendered recruitment strategies aimed at men and women; broader community support for terrorist organizations; and the roles of gender norms, hierarchies and expectations in shaping acceptable behaviors. This chapter examines how the lack of gender perspectives in counter-terrorism policies has been problematic. It develops a comprehensive framework for thinking about gender and terrorism. Through a case study of Mohamed Atta and a discussion of Incel terrorism, this chapter shows how gender and notions of masculinity are key. All of this should inform research and policy. One of the keys for policy communities will be the recruitment of a more diverse cohort of leaders who will have a better appreciation of the roles of men and women in enabling and countering terrorism.