Blockchain concepts, architectures, and Smart city applications in fog and edge computing environments
Impossible does seem to be intimated when it comes to making things smarter and interconnected as the modern era nourishes the Internet of Things (IoT) trending towards the least human intervention. Besides benefiting fields such medical, industry, and education, the IoT has also reformed vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) towards the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) by not just only assuring road safety but also by providing infotainment, insurance coverage, and other Internet applications that facilitate and enhance user’s vehicle experience. Content-centric networking (CCN) is a proven low-delay and independent-of-link stability architecture for the provisioning of all these facilities instead of using host-centric architecture. In CCN, the prime focus is to secure data rather than the user, which mitigates publishing false data and uplifts the need for validating the provided data. Blockchain is the technology which stores transaction, validated data, and is tamper-proof and able to be audited. IoVs with CCN form content-centric Internet of Vehicles (CC-IoVs) with temporary connectivity and data sharing, elevating the need for validated, tamper-proof, and auditable data (i.e., blockchain). Blockchain is a decentralised ledger and needs exhaustive computations; edge computing serves well to fulfil this need in a divide-and-conquer manner for calculations and data storage in blockchain-enabled CC-IoVs. In this chapter, we present a scheme that validates offensive events resulting from speeding vehicles, creates a block, and then adds the block to the chain associated to that highway. The proposed mechanism aims to work in the absence of speed cameras and traffic wardens with minimal network overhead, delay, and financial impact. In terms of least network overhead and delay, the proposed approach produces better results as compared to the prevalent technique.