Ruthenium “Melt”-Catalyzed Oxonation of Terminal and Internal Olefins to Linear Aldehydes/Alcohols
Terminal and internal olefins may be hydroformylated to give oxo products through the use of ruthenium-catalyzed melt systems. The addition of N and P ligands such as 2,2’-bipyridine, 2,2‘-bipyrimidine, and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane allows terminal olefins to be regioselectively oxonated yielding 99% linear oxoalcohols and aldehydes. Through judicious choice of both ligand and low melting point quaternary phosphonium salt, internal olefin substrates may also give predominantly linear oxoalcohols.
Spectral and kinetic data are discussed in terms of a proposed reaction scheme involving ruthenium cluster anions.