Bosnia and Herzegovina as the stage for three parallel and conflicted historical memories: is Bosnia and Herzegovina a “failed state”?*
A small Balkan country, Bosnia and Herzegovina caught the attention of the world especially between 1992 and 1995, having become the stage for a war that was ended by the Dayton Peace Agreement in November/December 1995. The history of Bosnia and Herzegovina, being part of European development, but breaking ties with it as well, has been crucially determined by foreign and authoritarian political systems— a history without democracy of the western type. The fundamental contradictory elements of political culture and political language in these historical time periods are established on stereotypical pictures, that is the friend–enemy scheme. The memory of the Second World War and the memory of the wars between the Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks in the 1990s are connected, though structured differently.