Possible Role of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase on the Early Stage of Liver Carcinogenesis by Diethylnitrosamine in Rats
In the present experiments, we studied the effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on the early stage of liver carcinogenesis by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rat liver in order to clarify the biological role of this enzyme in cancer induction. We used 3-aminobenzamide(ABA), 5-methylnicotinamide(MNam), and thymidine as the inhibitors and measured the numbers and sizes of γ-glutamyltrans-peptidase (γ-GTP) positive foci as a marker of initiated cell populations. When ABA was given within 4 hr after DEN treatment, it had almost the same effect as a partial hepatectomy and caused dose-dependent enhancement of the induction of γ-GTP positive foci. The administration of ABA at a dose of 600 mg/kg was effective to enhance the induction of the foci 1 day before to 1 day after 20 mg/kg DEN initiation. The enhancing effect of MNam and thymidine at a dose of 600 mg/kg was observed to the same extent as that of ABA. Based on these results the experiments were extended to the mechanisms of the enhancing effect of ABA. Liver cell necrosis was not detected by measuring serum GOT and GPT levels and histology after DEN and ABA administration. Further, the initiating and promoting activities of ABA in liver carcinogenesis were studied and ABA per se was not found to take part in either activity. These results indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase plays an important role in the early stage of liver carcinogenesis by DEN and provides a new avenue for studying the mechanisms of the initiation process in chemical carcinogenesis.