chapter  3
Where have all the abangan gone? Religionization and the decline of non-standard Islam in contemporary Indonesia: Robert W. Hefner
ByROBERT W. HEFNER
Pages 21

Over the past half century, Indonesia has witnessed a little-noted but important transformation of its popular religious heritage: the collapse of the nonstandard, syncretic varieties of Islam for which this sprawling Southeast Asian country was once renowned. Two generations ago, there were many such locally oriented Islamic traditions, as well as non-standard modules of ritual and learning embedded within traditions otherwise deemed Islamic. The more prominent of the non-standard traditions were those of the abangan (Jav., lit., ‘red’) in Java,1 the Wetu Telu (Sasak, lit., ‘three times’) in Lombok, the Gumai in South Sumatra, and some Bugis and Makassar circles in South Sulawesi.2