chapter  53
SECOND-ORDER KNOWLEDGE
ByCHRISTOPH KELP AND NIKOLAJ J.L.L. PEDERSEN
Pages 11

Knowledge involves belief. Belief is a propositional attitude, i.e. an attitude that a subject holds towards a proposition. If a subject S knows that P and the proposition P involves no further knowledge attribution, let us say that S possesses first-order knowledge. On the other hand, if S knows that P and the proposition P involves a knowledge attribution, let us say that S possesses higher-order knowledge. The aim of this article is to shed light on the nature of second-order knowledge, a specific kind of higher-order knowledge. It is worth noting, however, that the kinds of considerations offered here are also relevant to cases of knowledge of higher orders-if properly extended or modified.