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Bythem-that is to say, the form which they assume it is

35 memoir already mentioned,1 "that under this name we designate the science which studies the material foundations of societies with a view not only to describing, but also to explaining them-that is to say, the form which they assume when they are establishing themselves on the land, the number and density of their population, the manner in which it is distributed and the ensemble of the things which serve as a seat of collective life." Thus is reborn from its ashes, but under a different name, anthropogeography, previously sacrificed on the altar of confusionism. More modest, we are assured, better regulated in its aims, less rash in its methods, social morphology will occupy a favourable position. There is no risk that it will wander off into blind alleys or dissipate itself in futile endeavours, for the morphologist will follow in the wake of a science with a limited scope and welldefined aims. Its task will be precise and relatively easy. And nothing will be sacrificed with which human geography either deals, or would consider it useful to deal, or could reasonably wish to elucidate. M. Mauss assures us anew of this. Here is an example, and a very significant one. After having stated in another volume of the Annee sociologique 2 that H. Schurtz, in his Volkerkunde, 3 understood by anthropogeography not so much the influence of geographical situation on man in general as " the study of the action of terrestrial phenomena on societies considered chiefly from the point of view of habit", M. Mauss, with the ardour of an heirpresumptive, rushes to the rescue of anthropogeographers thus reduced to a bare living. "If Schurtz had included in his definition," he writes, "as he might have done and as would have been logical, not only the study of the environment of peoples, of their movements and of their gradual attachment to the land and of the States (political geography), but also that of the movements of population, the formation of towns and in general the distribution of individuals over the surface of the globe-he would have arrived at the idea of social morphology which we are defending here."