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Byif we confine our attention

Amongst these different factors, the possession of a centre of barter is one of the most important. A fortress is often at the same time a market. It sometimes happens that under the shelter of its walls and within the great area they surround (Bibracte was more than three miles in circumference and had an area of 350 acres; and Gergovia a circumference of z! miles and an area of nearly zoo acres) one of those open market spaces is installed which the Romans called a " forum" and the Gauls magus, and which have left numerous traces behind them in French place-names.! But this is neither the rule nor a necessity. In times when markets had only a temporary existence 2 analogous to that of the fairs or " pardons" of to-day, it was not necessary to shelter them behind permanent fortifications, since a whole series of special institutions 3 provided, amongst all nations, for the general safety of the merchants in the old sense of the word, that is to say, the buyers and sellers. We may add that, in old times, the particular market for the sale of provisions was specially reserved for women to the exclusion of men. 4 The latter could only join in the business when, along with the provisions, goods of other kinds appeared on the sale ground; for then the market began to participate in long-distance frade, which was more or less of a military nature and of man's province.