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the ominous visits of the ships of Western countries anti-bakufu sentiments became geographically concentrated han which had been forced to adopt some modernisation han were mainly located anti-bakufu scholars and their eager disciples han which actually led the Meiji Restora­

demanding opening of the ports, these scholars and their ad­ herents blasted the bakufu as treacherous when it agreed to the opening of the ports in 1854. in those