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noren as trade mark, now the government

intended to introduce the Western system of registration of trade­ marks, to stop the confusion and quality deterioration. The Tokyo chamber judged that, in 1878, the time was too early for this new way, but three years later the debate ended with adoption of such a system.

We have stressed repeatedly that modern business, notably fac­ tory production, came to Japan as result of politically motivated leadership; it was best understood by an avant-garde of entre­ preneurs. But these men were so much taken up with problems of technology, finance, and organisation, that such humble things as management of labour ranked rather low in their preference scale. The practitioners with experience in handling employees and workers, to whom this job had to be relegated, naturally took as models the past patterns of employer-employee relation­ ships. It is hence only to be expected that in this area of manage­ ment things would become difficult, to put it mildly.