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chōnin (a word which became practically synonymous shinpan or related han (territorial unit administered by a daimyō) whose daimyō were bakufu maintained a metsuke - at their side to watch tozama were never given the income of the Tokugawa House domain, which amounted bakufu always gave the figure fiefs which came close to

with merchant - shōniri). Thus the four-class system was created which remained undisputed in its rigidity, at least in theory if not always in fact, until the beginning of the Meiji era. Given the over­ riding goal of preservation of the status quo, Ieyasu and his successors enforced a policy of national seclusion in order to those of the minor daimyō, while the lesser ranks were paid out of the tax receipts through the Treasury and were employed in various government posts and other public duties. Under the pres­ sure of rising costs of the government bureaucracy, and the need to sustain the large army of samurai, the bakufu evolved an effi­