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zaibatsu at a time when Japan began to lose its goal was abandoned in favour of labour management based on loyalties

orientation, and the traditionalist backlash began. Labour relations were skilfully adapted to fit the basic attitudes of labourers coming from the villages: the open labour market and group solidarity. Management was thus 'dualistically'

The modern sector itself, however, showed clear signs of di­ vergencies from the Western models: while organisation and overall profit-orientated rationality was stressed, familism in labour management became dominant; furthermore, with all their college education, the top managers of the zaibatsu were loyal in the traditional sense. Thus economic modernisation proceeded externally - that is, on the macro level as well as in organisational terms - according to Western models, while on the human level it remained traditional.