The conclusion of the Cold War has spawned positive developments, such as the unification of Germany, the reduction of nuclear arsenals, and drastic cuts in the defence budgets of Western countries. Small states also seem to live in a more benign environment. The new international system, however, also created the conditions for fragmentation and civil strife in the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Nationalism and ethnic identity are still powerful motivating forces and a continuing cause for political instability.8 Moreover, there is no evidence of a decline in the use of force by political actors in
the international arena. Indeed, armed conflict has increased in some regions, involving primarily small states.