chapter  12
32 Pages

Intentional Learning as a Goal of Instruction

WithCarl Bereiter, Marlene Scardamalia

This chapter focuses on intentional learning provides a natural way of coordinating the two relevant research traditions—the tradition dealing with learning situations and the tradition dealing with learning skills. The applied research relevant to intentional learning is found catalogued under the heading of learning or study skills. In expert–novice comparisons, it is common to find novices applying means-end analysis and other problem–solving strategies, whereas experts retrieve already–learned scripts or schemata that permit them to handle the tasks in a more routine manner. Cognitive science provides a variety of ways to model the cognitive behavior of an individual—flow charts, production systems, scripts, strategy descriptions. A joint cognitive process is a single coherent process, with different parts carried out by different people. The main contribution of instructional psychology to the promotion of intentional learning has research on the teaching of learning skills and strategies.