An attempt has been made to describe the processes of learned cardiovascular control in terms of a general model of voluntary behavior. In attempting to describe the learning mechanisms that underly the development of voluntary control, the most profound obstacle to be overcome resides in the entrenched meaning of traditional concepts employed in the description and analysis of these processes. Thus the arrangement of exteroceptive feedback the occurrence of constellations of activity rather than changes in a single modality may be employed to investigate biological constraints on the plasticity of learned cardiovascular change. A voluntary act is initiated through the activation of an RI by some external stimulus. The interpretation of the disparity in the effects of exteroceptive heart rate feedback is critical to the analysis of voluntary control proposed. The procedure of calibration involves the systematic pairing of exteroceptive stimuli with the interoceptive feedback stimuli consequent upon an act.