Organized fraud and organizing frauds: Unpacking research on networks and organization
This article examines the settings for frauds in the context of crime networks, fraud opportunities and of a victim-centric typology of fraud. Two important themes in analysing the extent to which crimes are loosely or tightly organized are the ease with which willing criminals find the co-offenders necessary or helpful for any given set of offences; and the breaking down of the elements of criminal organization into its component parts. The chapter demonstrates the variety of actors, settings and the variable need for knowing collaboration between co-offenders in frauds of different types. It explores what is known about those involved in the organization of some forms of frauds and the barriers to growth of the 'fraud business'. The chapter concludes that the globalization of crime is part of contingent relationships between settings, with their rich and varied opportunities, the variable abilities of would-be perpetrators to recognize and act on those opportunities, and their interactions with controls.