Display Formatting Techniques for Improving Situation Awareness in the Aircraft Cockpit
Situation awareness (SA), as measured by flight performance and recovery from disorientation events, was best maintained with the planar outside-in display, whereas color coding improved performance on the planar inside-out display. These are display perspective, frame of reference and visual momentum. Navigation awareness, in particular, refers to the pilot's dynamic representation or mental model of the aircraft's orientation within two macro-dimensions—space and time. Corresponding to the direction of the aircraft, a portion of the frame in each display was color coded accordingly to support the perception of a continuous directional information "space" among the sequentially presented planar displays. David D. Woods introduced the concept of "visual momentum" in display design as a technique to enhance the spatial and/or temporal correspondence between pairs of displays. Good situation awareness is equated with a pilot's accurate "orientation" of critical flight information.