Alfred Rosenzweig was a Viennese musicologist and critic who studied at the Universities of Budapest and Vienna. Rosenzweig first met the pianist Edith Vogel at a recital she gave in Vienna at the age of 14. They later became lovers and fled Austria for England separately in the late 1930s. A draft English translation of the typewritten text had been undertaken in close collaboration with Vogel by her acquaintance Laura Wallace during the 1960s, and this is also to be found in the Rosenzweig collection. Such material is instead used as a loose framework and platform for Mathis-Rosenzweig's profound examination of the late-nineteenth- and turn-of-the-century political and cultural environment within which Mahler's music was embedded. It is a matter of great regret, of course, that Mathis-Rosenzweig did not live long enough to complement the historical and cultural study presented in the extant typescript with the more detailed and specific musical analysis.