This chapter describes both a social structure and discursive system that value the interests of boys and men over those of women and that introduce and support ideas and social/political arrangements that benefit men and boys over women and girls. Any consideration of gender and education in the contemporary world needs to take account of the impact of neoliberal globalization and marketization — the increasing demands for testing, and greater control over the educational workplace that have marked academia since the 1990s. When gender is considered through the lens of neoliberal educational reform, it is not surprisingly in terms of economic outcomes. It is a kind of "free market" feminism, recalling Chandra Mohanty's description of "a neoliberal, consumerist feminism concerned with 'women's advancement' up the corporate and nation-state ladder". In the developing world, the concern about girls' relative lack of success in school is framed not in terms of gender justice.