In the bilingualism literature the construct of monitoring is chameleon-like with respect to the target of the monitor. In order for bilingualism to enhance Executive functions (EF), it must be the case that the amount of EF recruited by bilinguals during language comprehension and production is significantly greater than that employed by monolinguals. The hypothesis that bilingualism enhances EF is one instance of the broader claim that practicing specific tasks can boost general cognitive abilities. The importance of controlling for immigrant status is underscored by investigations of the role of bilingualism on the onset of mild cognitive decline or dementia. Three aspects of bilingualism were used as ­continuous predictors of EF: age of acquisition, usage, and proficiency. EF is the least likely cognitive ability to be moderated by bilingualism. Examining the behavioral tests using standard measures of EF curbs one’s enthusiasm.