This chapter describes the current situation of modern Russian lexicography within the context of global lexicographical developments and changes. It takes into consideration studies of different user groups' needs and demands, challenges of the new Internet technologies and growing intercultural dialogue in the global world. The milestones of Russian lexicography include the first azbukovniks or dictionaries of hard and difficult words from Old Church Slavonic, selected from the texts according to the compilers preference and organized in an alphabetical order. Dictionaries for young learners have a long tradition and have been developed in Russia since the communist time. When describing the modern scene of Russian lexicography it is necessary to mention Russian learners' LSP dictionaries which are used in technical and scientific educational institutions. Russian lexicography has gone through several historical periods, performing different important functions: linguo-didactical and methodological; descriptive and codification; communicative; and theoretical-methodological.