Past is prologue
In 2017, pundits and scholars ‘discovered’ populism. Brexit, Donald Trump, and elections in Austria, the Netherlands and France contributed to this discovery. Elections in spring 2012 pointed to a nationalist and populist turn in European politics. This chapter focuses on those elections as ‘prologue’. Spring 2012 represented a transition point in European political culture. The acceleration and normalisation of the European nationalist right is the collateral damage from three crises: austerity; security and refugee. The European sovereign debt crisis at the centre of this chapter was the first crisis that exposed cracks in the European political infrastructure.