Learning to Read Words Efficiently
This chapter provides some foundations for a theory of the types of prerequisite relationships that can exist between cognitive competences. It describes this theory as a basis for understanding the nature of the observed correlation between phonological or articulatory proficiency and reading achievement, and shows how this concern motivated the longitudinal study of beginning reading now in progress. Also, since error rate in reading and reading speed are not orthogonal factors, similar ability-group differences are found in the proportion of oral reading errors made across levels on each type of passage. Reading fluency is prerequisite to learning a number of skills in the sense that those skills are learned more efficiently if one can easily read certain instructional material. The results for vocalization latency and its relationship with reading achievement help to clarify the nature of word recognition as a prerequisite for reading. The individual words had generally been included in the curriculum, but with lower frequency of occurrence.