Interactive Processes in Reading: Where Do We Stand?
In contrast to the suggestions of some reading researchers, the expert models are more "bottom-up" than the novice models. Another major source of guidance for interactive models of reading is the work stimulated by a major Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency effort in the early 1970s to develop speech-understanding systems. One interesting comment can be made about the expert-novice difference as characterized by intelligent systems such as HEARSAY-II and HARPY. The HEARSAY-II discipline is important for two reasons. First, it provides a lesson about how allocation of processing capacity might take place in a multicomponent system. Second, the experience of the HEARSAY project in trying out different levels at which to concentrate decisions about the allocation of resources may be instructive. An important theoretical program that derives from influential metaphor is the logogen theory of John Morton. The chapter also presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book.