Enhancement of Radiation Effects by Gold Nanoparticles for Superficial Radiation Therapy
The enhancement of radiation effects by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) demonstrates the potential application of AuNPs to superficial radiation therapy using kilovoltage X-ray and electron beams. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were used as a model of endothelial tissue. The dose enhancement to BAECs by AuNPs is measured using cell survival as an indicator. Studies were done with kilovoltage superficial radiation therapy-type X-rays and megavoltage electron beams. The chapter investigates cytotoxicity and internalization of AuNPs to the BAEC cellular cytoplasm as a function of AuNP concentration. The dose enhancement factor (DEF) obtained from the cell survival curve is used to determine the effects of AuNPs as dose modifiers. The potential increase of cellular damage by AuNPs was also tested with an electron beam. Similar to the superficial x-ray, the results indicated that under identical radiation doses, cells containing AuNPs showed lower survival percentages with increasing concentration of AuNPs.