DNA analysis and typing
Forensic DNA typing is based on the fact that DNA is the genetic material of all living organisms, including human beings. Through DNA, genetic information is passed from generation to generation, from parents to children. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing is the method of choice among DNA-typing technologies for the identification of old, highly decomposed, and/or skeletal human remains. Biological evidence should be thoroughly dried before packaging—that is the most important factor in preserving DNA to obtain DNA profiles. The groundwork for developing DNA typing methods for forensic casework was laid down by genetic scientists throughout the 1970s and 1980s. DNA typing is applicable only in circumstances where biological evidence has been deposited and recovered, and yields DNA that can be typed. The major applications of forensic DNA typing are criminal cases, civil cases, and identification of persons when other simpler methods fail or cannot be used.