This chapter presents an analysis of the role of adult literacy in the development of India, comparing policy against performance and intention against action. The National Adult Education Program (NAEP), launched in 1978, has been given special attention in the analysis. Education would serve the purposes both of modernization and democratization. Adult literacy is offered in the context of control, to perform specified vocational-technical functions within specific development projects and programs. The political leaders of the time led the way in demonstrating their commitment to literacy. In regard to adult literacy policy, there seems to be a complete break from preindependence India to postindependence India. In the months that followed, the Desai government did indeed come up with the NAEP as part of the Fifth Five-Year Plan of 1978-1983. The technology of literacy promotion and its pedagogy are much better understood. Understandably, the involvement of development agencies and their functionaries in the implementation of adult education programs was negligible.