Lipid Metabolism in the Intestinal Tract and Its Modification by Ethanol
This chapter examines the results of earlier experiments on each category of lipid metabolism in the intestine and ultimately evaluates the original hypothesis. Numerous studies have been performed on the effect of ethanol on lipid metabolism. Lipid hydrolysis products must make contact with the enterocyte membrane before being absorbed. Lipids absorbed by the enterocyte, namely, monoglycerides, fatty acids, cholesterol, and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), must be translocated from the brush-border of the cell where absorption occurs to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where lipids are further metabolized. The absorption of dietary lipids into the intestinal mucosa is followed by the formation of intestinal lipoproteins. Intestinal lipoproteins transport absorbed lipid into the bloodstream via the lymph. Drinking alcohol without food seems to enhance lipoprotein production in the intestine in certain situations. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the lipoprotein produced under these circumstances, as demonstrated by Mistillis and Ockner.