Accuracy, Quality Assurance, and Quality Control of Light Detection and Ranging Mapping
This chapter presents a conceptual approach for Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) calibration and its necessary prerequisites. After a brief introduction to LiDAR principles, this chapter presents an analysis of error sources in a LiDAR system, their impact on the resulting point clouds, and general remarks regarding the QA/QC procedures. Detailed discussions are focused on the various strategies and methods for internal and external QC to verify the geometric accuracy of a LiDAR point cloud. A case study with airborne LiDAR is used to demonstrate the introduced quality control procedures respectively based on interpolated range and intensity images, conjugate straight lines, and conjugate planar patches in overlapping strips.