Uncertainty Sources Associated with Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Experiments on Cell Cultures
The poor consensus within the bioelectromagnetics community regarding the biological effects of low-level static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic field exposures is a typical example, where the signals under scrutiny are below well-known and established biological effect thresholds. This chapter reviews quantitative perspective for the uncertainty associated with culture temperature and electric and magnetic fields in the context of classical biology experimentation techniques, as well as customized bioelectromagnetics experimentation. Such environmental parameter assessment, coupled with the potential and known exquisite sensitivity of biological systems, may add to a reasonable explanation for the variability and irreproducibility associated with some in vitro ELF electric and magnetic field experimental reports. Thermal inhomogeneity and susceptibility to perturbations have been observed on a variety of laboratory instrumentation. In the case of conventional incubators, some simple measures can be taken to minimize the thermal perturbation effects on culture container thermal history.