This chapter evaluates the evolution and development of Afghanistan's political parties from 2001 to the present. It accounts for the rise and decline in enthusiasm for political party formation and reformation, and the impact of both formal regulations and the informal nature of Afghan politics upon party development. The chapter distinguishes between long-established political-military organisations and the smaller parties that were formed after the fall of the Taliban. It presents an analytical framework drawn from the existing literature on the role of political parties and party systems in democracies. The 2001 Bonn Agreement created a basic framework for the gradual transition of Afghanistan from decades of turmoil and armed conflict into a pluralistic, democratic and stable political system. The impact of formal regulations in promoting fewer and more effective and inclusive parties has been undermined by the Palace's own approach towards politics and political parties.