chapter  12
10 Pages

Transport-Energy Interactions

ByL. Klaassen

The study of the role that energy and energy prices play in urban development raises a remarkable question, which is not answered in the same way the world over. One basic principle of road-pricing is that road users have to pay more, the more they make use of roads with high traffic intensity. Through such road-pricing, traffic will tend to redistribute itself to less occupied routes or less occupied hours. Not only families but also (and in particular) governments have fallen into difficulties owing to the economic recession, especially in the countries of continental Europe with very advanced systems of social security. Such systems imply high taxes, and these have largely been imposed on fuels needed for traffic. A change in the structure of employment contributed to the present difficult position of public transport. Spatial units and spatial social structures are built up gradually, as the result of a long societal development process.