Isogeometric Kirchhoff-Love shells: Numerics, constitution and biomechanical applications
Kirchhoff-Love shells can be used to model many biological and biomechanical systems. Here, a rotation-free shell formulation is presented that allows for different constitutive modeling approaches. Material models can be extracted from existing 3D material models or can be directly formulated on a 2D manifold. The formulation can be applied to both solids and liquids. Balloon angioplasty, which involves contact simulation between deformable bodies, is shown as an example. The formulation has also been used successfully for many other applications.