An endurance athlete’s focus of attention can significantly influence performance. Relaxation may improve movement economy, for example, whereas a focus on bodily sensations may increase effort perceptions and decrease pace. This chapter begins with an overview of the attentional focus literature, providing an up-to-date categorisation of attentional strategies, and detailing how each may impact endurance performance. Throughout, recommendations for adopting context-appropriate cognitive strategies to optimise endurance performance are provided. Finally, current research priorities, such as the effects of various relaxation and attentional strategies on movement economy, and the role of cognitive strategies on longer-term endurance exercise adherence, are also highlighted.