Foreign Oil Majors in Japan and the Second World War
Studies in business history have explored how political risks, such as war, nationalism and nationalistic economic policy of states affected multinational enterprises (MNEs). As several chapters in this volume demonstrate, MNEs had to address threats and risks of war, occupation or national economic policies. However, when it comes to the relationship with state and national policies, MNEs did not necessarily have a passive existence. From such viewpoints, this chapter examines the case of foreign oil companies in Japan during the 1930s and 1940s, from the attempt to reduce dependency on imports before the Pacific War, to US occupation following the war.