This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book shows important similarities and differences in the approach of left and liberal social movements, intellectuals, activists and politicians of social democratic, communist, liberal, the agrarian centre parties and even conservative actors. It focuses on whether extreme-right or fascist ideals and actions were considered a serious threat or a passing infatuation in Finland. The book explores the responses to fascism by the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, which constitutes an overlooked case in the historiography of fascism and anti-fascism. It analyses how key persons in the organization managed to avoid an alliance and collaboration with National Unity, and gain a majority for a declaration condemning National Unity and fascism. The book discusses the cultural struggle against fascism to an analysis of the workers’ stage in the context of the popular front and Spanish aid in Finland.