In recent years, a risk-based approach to implementing food safety law has drawn increasing attention in China. This chapter explores the rise of this approach from a regulatory perspective. It examines the current framework that was developed by the China Food and Drug Administration. Based on a brief comparison with the relevant practice in the UK (England), this chapter points out some critical issues concerning risk assessment, the coverage of the risk-based approach and the contribution of private assurance schemes in China. Taking into consideration the special context in China, this chapter concludes with potential ways to improve the current risk-based approach to implementing food safety law.