Fundamentals of Nanotechnology
This chapter presents an introduction to nanoscience with a special emphasis on nanochemistry. It describes especially the large specific surface of nanomaterials, which can lead to reduced melting points of nanoscopic objects or also to enhanced catalytic activity. The chapter also describes special physical effects such as the occurrence of superparamagnetism, localized surface plasmon resonances or size quantization for magnetic, metallic, and semiconducting nanomaterials, respectively. Depending on the way a specific nanocrystal is produced, its surface structure can be quite different. Interactions between two metallic nanoparticles can also be of complicated demeanor especially when looking at plasmonic particles in close proximity to one another. A so-called nanoheterostructure is a particle comprising two or more compartments of different materials. Dendrimers have attracted attention because of their well-defined structures and chemical versatility, which make them an interesting instrument for the preparation of nanoparticles. Mechanical milling is a very convenient and promising method to produce nanoparticle powders and alloys from bulk materials.