Manufacturing throughput is central to profitability and competitiveness. When expressed as time duration, manufacturing throughput time is the length of time between the release of an order to the shop floor, its passing through a manufacturing process, and delivery as finished goods. Throughputs can exhibit significant variations which can be managed through a monitoring system. Effective control of manufacturing throughput time can be rewarding as there are benefits associated with reducing manufacturing throughput time especially as part of a continuous improvement scheme in sustainable manufacturing. This paper presents an online throughput monitoring system that is based on real-time Radio Frequency Identification data and control chart pattern recognition techniques. The monitoring system is capable of generating effective early warning signals. The approach is illustrated using a laboratory-based manufacturing system and results indicate that the approach is effective for monitoring throughput and achieving continuous improvement.