chapter  10
Cross-Cultural Differences in Parents’ Responses to Child Temperament
BySae-Young Han, Seong-Yeon Park, Eun Gyoung Lee, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares, Helena Slobodskaya
Pages 9

Similarities as well as cultural differences were observed in mothers’ responses to their toddlers’ temperament. In all cultures, mothers were more likely to encourage both Negative Affectivity and Surgency, rewarding high Effortful Control rather than punishing low levels of regulation. Cultural differences were revealed across 14 cultures in parental responses to child temperament without notable effects of child gender or age. Differences and universalities are discussed in the context of Long-term versus Short-term Orientation. Additionally, mothers’ responses to Parental Responses to Temperament Displays (PRTD) showed patterns unique to different dimensions of temperament even within a specific cultural context.