chapter  16
Parental Responses, Toddler Temperament, and Behavior Problems
ByIbrahim Acar, Amanda Prokasky, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares, Felipe Lecannelier, Samuel P. Putnam
Pages 8

Parental responses to manifestations of child temperament have long been thought to play an important role in social-emotional development, and this chapter addresses associations between parental reactions to temperament displays, child temperament, and behavior problems, within and between cultures. Results indicate that discouraging Negative Affectivity as well as punishing low Effortful Control were associated with lower toddler Effortful Control and higher levels of behavioral/emotional difficulties. Punishing low Effortful Control was also associated with high Negative Affectivity. Results are discussed from the standpoint that implications of “supportive” or “unsupportive” parental responses to child temperament likely differs across cultures.