The JETTC study generates both new understandings and new questions. Cross-cultural differences were identified in all aspects of parent psychology, socialization context, and child outcomes studied. These differences connected meaningfully to broad aspects of cultural orientation, and to one another, suggesting pathways through which culture shapes child development. Furthermore, within-country associations among aspects of children’s daily context and their behavior are informative regarding links that are relatively universal and those that are culturally specific. Future research directions stemming from this project include expanded sampling, varied measures, incorporation of biological indicators, and more detailed analyses.