This chapter explores cross-cultural differences in toddler temperament factors and their relations to dimensions of culture. The findings show that toddlers from East Asian countries were higher in Negative Affectivity and lower in Surgency than those from the west. Negative Affectivity was closely aligned with Individualism-Collectivism. For Effortful Control, the largest difference was between the two Asian cultures, with South Korean toddlers scoring highest and Chinese toddlers scoring lowest. This surprising finding may be explained by differences in cultural dimensions of Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Power Distance.