We analyzed the association between temperament and first signs of behavioral problems in toddlers from the JETTC countries. Our results point to the relevance of high Negative Affectivity and low Effortful Control as risk factors for the development of behavioral problems in toddlerhood. Individual differences in Surgency did not emerge as critical at this developmental stage. Although we found a consistent pattern of associations in many cases, differences among the countries were noted in the strength of the associations. Culture-specific variations were observed along with relatively universal relations between temperament and behavior problems.