Cross-cultural comparisons of Parental Ethnotheories (PE) and Socialization Goals (SG), and relations between these constructs, are described in this chapter. Autonomous PE were marginally consistent with Autonomous SG, and both were high in Indulgent cultures, such as Mexico, Chile, the Netherlands, and the US, and low in countries valuing restraint, including China, Italy, South Korea, and Russia. Relational PE and SG were not associated with one another, or with broad cultural dimensions. Relational PE were highest in Chile and Finland, and lowest in Mexico and Turkey. Relational SG were highest in Mexico and Brazil, and lowest in Italy and Finland.