Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC) cultures differed strongly in use of discipline techniques. Hitting/spanking was used most in Brazil and least in Finland. Shouting was used most by high Long-Term Orientation cultures. Time-out was common in Spain, Belgium, and US, and rare in Finland. Taking away privileges was common in Spain and not in Russia. Requiring children to think about their misbehavior was most common in high Power Distance and Collectivist cultures. Asking the child to repair damage was most common in countries characterized by Short-term Orientation and Indulgence. Talking the issue over was used most in Brazil and Romania, and least in Russia and China.