Biocatalytic Conversion of Lignocellulose Materials to Fatty Acids and Ethanol with Subsequent Esterification
A fundamental task of producing fuels from renewable agricultural or technical feedstock is a conversion of structures of mostly carbohydrate nature to hydrocarbons or molecules containing hydrocarbonic fragments: carbohydrates alcohols, carbohydrates fatty acids esters, and carbohydrates biomass (bio-oil). This chapter explores a detailed kinetic study of fatty acids and ethanol generation from different samples of carbon-containing raw materials including biomass, the optimization of process rate and target product yields, obtaining the esters of fatty acids under condition of supercritical ethanol, and testing the products in fuel compositions. Oxidative catalytical depolymerization and hydrolysis were used as a common means of preprocessing of solid raw materials. Biodiesel and bioethanol are two main types of liquid biofuels produced in large industrial scale. Ethanol together with volatile fatty acids (VFA)—acetic, propionic, and butyric—produces as a result of biocatalytic processing plant of polysaccharide raw material, preferably waste agriculture and wood industry.