Diseases Of Wheat in Brazil And Their Management
428Wheat is one of the very important aspects of the agribusiness trade balance in Brazil. This chapter gives an overview of this sector, providing the general information about wheat imports. Two of Brazil’s coldest states, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, account for over 90% of wheat production and imports around US$700 million in wheat every year. However, wheat is very susceptible to mycotoxin contamination caused by fungal infection. The southern region is characterized by the cultivation of soft wheat cultivars; its greatest obstacle is the high rainfall during harvest months, which favors pre-harvest sprouting, leaf rust, and Fusarium head blight. In the south-central and central regions, water deficiency, excessive heat, and wheat blast (Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum) are the main limiting factors. The southcentral and central regions are marked to produce bread wheat. The quality profile of Brazilian wheat varies according to the region where it is produced. The southern Brazil has a semi-temperate climate, higher rainfall, soil that is more fertile, advanced technology and high input use, appropriate infrastructure, and experienced farmers. This region produces most of Brazil’s cereal grains and oilseeds. The aim of this chapter is to present the main diseases of wheat in Brazil. Emphasis has been put on the characteristics of the diseases, their epidemiological aspects, management using common control measures.