Important nematode pests of wheat and barley and their management
258Wheat and barley are grown during Rabi season in the most parts of India. Wheat plays a significant role in Global Food Security. However, barley also getting status of a healthy food crop for human consumption due to rising health consciousness. The plant diseases are major biotic constraints that affect its production to a great extent. In addition to many fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, several plant parasitic nematodes, viz., cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.), root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici), root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.), stem and bulb nematode (Ditylenchus spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhyn- chus spp.) are also considered to be one of the important constraints in their production. Hence, the efforts are made to describe symptoms caused by plant parasitic nematodes, their identification characteristics and biology. In addition to this, attempts are also made to give important effective methods for their management.